Conventional and nonconventional extraction techniques for optimal extraction processes of rosmarinic acid from six Lamiaceae plants as determined by HPLC-DAD measurement

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2020 May 30;184:113173. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2020.113173. Epub 2020 Feb 13.


The goal of this study was to improve the extraction efficiency of rosmarinic acid (RA) from Lamiaceae herbs (lemon balm, peppermint, oregano, rosemary, sage, and thyme) using various extraction techniques (maceration with stirring, MACS; heat reflux, HRE; and microwave-assisted extraction, MAE) and extraction conditions (solvent acidity, solvent type, extraction time and temperature). The RA content was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection (HPLC-DAD) under test conditions. Our results showed that extraction with acidified aqueous ethanol (EtOH-H2O-HCl, 70:29:1, v/v/v) was the best choice for the recovery of RA compared to other solvent systems. Further study suggested the following optimal extraction times for the different techniques: 120 min at 25 °C with MACS, 15 min at boiling point with HRE, and 5 min at 50 °C and 80 °C with MAE. Based on our results, we demonstrated that by careful adjustment of the extraction conditions, it is possible to set up a single extraction protocol to extract RA from different plants.

Keywords: HPLC; Lamiaceae family; Microwave-assisted extraction; Rosmarinic acid; Solvent extraction.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Cinnamates / chemistry*
  • Depsides / chemistry*
  • Ethanol / chemistry
  • Lamiaceae / chemistry*
  • Microwaves
  • Plant Extracts / chemistry*
  • Solvents / chemistry


  • Antioxidants
  • Cinnamates
  • Depsides
  • Plant Extracts
  • Solvents
  • Ethanol
  • rosmarinic acid