The incidence of prostate cancer (PCa) displays widespread regional differences, probably owing to differences in dietary habits. Nutrients, including fat, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins (vitamin A, D, and E), and polyphenols, potentially affect PCa pathogenesis and progression, as previously reported using animal models; however, clinical studies have reported controversial results for almost all nutrients. The effects of these nutrients may be manifested through various mechanisms including inflammation, antioxidant effects, and the action of sex hormones. Dietary patterns including the Western and Prudent patterns also influence the risk of PCa. Recent studies reported that the gut microbiota contribute to tumorigenesis in some organs. Diet composition and lifestyle have a direct and profound effect on the gut bacteria. Human studies reported an increase in the abundance of specific gut bacteria in PCa patients. Although there are few studies concerning their relationship, diet and nutrition could influence PCa, and this could be mediated by gut microbiota. An intervention of dietary patterns could contribute to the prevention of PCa. An intervention targeting dietary patterns may thus help prevent PCa.
Keywords: diet; gut microbiota; nutrition; prostate cancer.