Changes in microbiome composition and function have been linked to human health and diseases. Metaproteomics provides invaluable functional information on the state of a microbiome. However, lower-abundance bacteria in complex microbiomes are difficult to observe by metaproteomics. In this study, stepwise differential lysis protocols were developed for human stool microbiomes to separate different microbial species and to increase the depth of metaproteomic measurements. We achieved differential lysis of Gram-positive (G+) and Gram-negative (G-) bacteria, selective enrichment of specific bacteria, and functional enrichment by our stepwise differential lysis protocols. Therefore, differential lysis can serve as a fractionation method to reduce sample complexity and selectively extract proteins from specific taxa for deep metaproteomic studies.