TBCRC 031: Randomized Phase II Study of Neoadjuvant Cisplatin Versus Doxorubicin-Cyclophosphamide in Germline BRCA Carriers With HER2-Negative Breast Cancer (the INFORM trial)

J Clin Oncol. 2020 May 10;38(14):1539-1548. doi: 10.1200/JCO.19.03292. Epub 2020 Feb 25.


Purpose: Platinum compounds have activity in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) in germline BRCA mutation carriers (BRCA carriers). Limited data exist for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive (+) breast cancer among BRCA carriers. INFORM is a randomized, multicenter, phase II trial comparing pathologic complete response (pCR) rates (ypT0/is, N0) after neoadjuvant single-agent cisplatin (CDDP) versus doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide (AC) in BRCA carriers with stage I-III human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative breast cancer. Secondary objectives included residual cancer burden scores (RCB) of 0 or 1 (combined) and toxicity. The goal was to determine whether pCR was ≥ 20% higher with CDDP than AC.

Patients and methods: BRCA carriers with cT1-3 (≥ 1.5 cm), cN0-3 HER2-negative breast cancer were randomly assigned to preoperative CDDP (75 mg/m2 every 3 weeks × 4 doses) or AC (doxorubicin 60 mg/m2; cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 every 2-3 weeks × 4 doses) followed by surgery. Pathologic responses were confirmed by central review.

Results: A total of 118 patients were randomly assigned; 117 were included in outcome analyses. Mean age was 42 years (range, 24-73 years); 69% were BRCA1+, 30% were BRCA2+, and 2% had both mutations. Clinical stage was I for 19%, II for 63%, and III for 18%; 45% had nodal involvement at baseline. Seventy percent had TNBC. Clinical and tumor characteristics were well matched between treatment arms. The pCR rate was 18% with CDDP and 26% with AC, yielding a risk ratio (RR) of 0.70 (90% CI, 0.39 to 1.2). The risk of RCB 0 or 1 (RCB 0/1) was 33% with CDDP and 46% with AC (RR, 0.73; 90% CI, 0.50 to 1.1). Both regimens were generally well tolerated without unexpected toxicities.

Conclusion: pCR or RCB 0/1 is not significantly higher with CDDP than with AC in BRCA carriers with stage I-III HER2-negative breast cancer for both TNBC and ER+/HER2-negative disease.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01670500.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Cisplatin / pharmacology
  • Cisplatin / therapeutic use*
  • Cyclophosphamide / pharmacology
  • Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use*
  • Doxorubicin / pharmacology
  • Doxorubicin / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoadjuvant Therapy / methods*
  • Triple Negative Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • Young Adult


  • Doxorubicin
  • Cyclophosphamide
  • Cisplatin

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01670500