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Review
. 2020 Feb 21;13(4):967.
doi: 10.3390/ma13040967.

Developing Nanostructured Ti Alloys for Innovative Implantable Medical Devices

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Free PMC article
Review

Developing Nanostructured Ti Alloys for Innovative Implantable Medical Devices

Ruslan Z Valiev et al. Materials (Basel). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Recent years have witnessed much progress in medical device manufacturing and the needs of the medical industry urges modern nanomaterials science to develop novel approaches for improving the properties of existing biomaterials. One of the ways to enhance the material properties is their nanostructuring by using severe plastic deformation (SPD) techniques. For medical devices, such properties include increased strength and fatigue life, and this determines nanostructured Ti and Ti alloys to be an excellent choice for the engineering of implants with improved design for orthopedics and dentistry. Various reported studies conducted in this field enable the fabrication of medical devices with enhanced functionality. This paper reviews recent development in the field of nanostructured Ti-based materials and provides examples of the use of ultra-fine grained Ti alloys in medicine.

Keywords: enhanced strength and fatigue life; functionality; medical implants with improved design; nanostructured Ti alloys; severe plastic deformation; shape-memory NiTi alloy.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Influence of ECAP-C strain on (a) grain boundary (GB) density, (b) yield strength and (c) the contribution of various strengthening mechanisms [21].
Figure 2
Figure 2
Engineering stress−strain tensile curves of the Ti-6Al-4V ELI alloy: coarse-grained material (initial) (1); UFG condition (2) and UFG condition after annealing at 500 °C (3).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Fatigue test results of initial coarse-grained material and UFG material after annealing at 500 °C, 1 h.
Figure 4
Figure 4
Microstructure of (a) Ti15Mo alloy prepared by HPT and (b) Ti-35Nb-6Ta-7ZZr alloy prepared by ECAP (cross-section).
Figure 5
Figure 5
Microstructure of (a) NC and (b) UFG NiTi alloys processed by HPT and ECAP, respectively.
Figure 6
Figure 6
Mechanical properties of NiTi alloy in CG condition and after ECAP. (a) Engineering stress–strain curves for tensile tests in CG state (1) and after ECAP using 4 (2), 8 (3) and 12 (4) passes and (b) functional properties (εrmax and σrmax) as a function of number of ECAP passes [61].
Figure 7
Figure 7
Geometry of the dental nanoimplant: (a) technical drawing with dimensions in mm; (b) 3D model; (c) enlarged FEM mesh.
Figure 8
Figure 8
Maximal principal stress for the UFG Ti implant with a 10% reduced diameter and 67.75 N force.
Figure 9
Figure 9
The image of the hip after the insertion of reinforcing implants.
Figure 10
Figure 10
Two types of the implant systems used: ((a) a pin; (b) a spiral) and their application using the INSTRON 5982 dynamometer.
Figure 11
Figure 11
Testing procedure of the reinforced hip sample.

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References

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