Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop an ultrasound consolidated score (UCS) in determining the activity of Crohn's disease (CD) and evaluate it with reference to simple endoscopic score (SES).
Methods: From June 2014 to June 2017, 66 patients with CD were retrospectively enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent endoscopy and transabdominal ultrasound (US) examination. The morphological symmetry, echogenicity of bowel wall, bowel wall layer structure, echogenicity of peri-bowel fat, bowel wall thickness (BWT), and Limberg type on power Doppler US were assessed with transabdominal US, and an UCS scoring system was developed based on these characteristics. Endoscopic results were used as the reference standard and SES was calculated to determine the CD activity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic performance for determining CD activity and the correlation between UCS and SES was assessed using Spearman correlation analysis.
Results: 330 intestinal segments in 66 patients were included. The UCS of the segments in the remission phase ranged from 3.0 to 9.0 (mean, 3.6 ± 0.9) whereas in the active phase from 3.0 to 20.0 (mean, 10.6 ± 4.0) (p < 0.001). The cut-off value of UCS was 6. The associated area under ROC curve, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy were 0.980, 88.3%, 95.5%, 93.8%, 91.3%, and 92.3%, respectively. The correlation coefficient between UCS and SES was 0.90, which was higher than the correlation coefficient of 0.83 between BWT and SES.
Conclusions: The newly developed UCS with transabdominal US has a good performance and potentially provides an effective alternative for evaluating the activity of CD.
Advances in knowledge: UCS is an effective method to evaluate the activity of CD because it provides comprehensive information of the disease. Therefore, it could be employed as an alternative for diagnosis of CD.