Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), an epithelial cell-derived cytokine, exhibits both pro-inflammatory and pro-homeostatic properties depending on the context and tissues in which it is expressed. It remains unknown whether TSLP has a similar dual role in the airways, where TSLP is known to promote allergic inflammation. Here we show that TSLP receptor (TSLPR)-deficient mice (Tslpr-/-) and mice treated with anti-TSLP antibodies exhibited increased airway inflammation and morbidity rates after bleomycin-induced tissue damage. We found that signaling through TSLPR on non-hematopoietic cells was sufficient for TSLP's protective function. Consistent with this finding, we showed that TSLP reduces caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity levels in primary human bronchial epithelial cells treated with bleomycin via Bcl-xL up-regulation. These observations were recapitulated in vivo by observing that Tslpr-/- mice showed reduced Bcl-xL expression that paralleled increased lung caspase-1 and caspase-3 activity levels and IL-1β concentrations in the bronchial-alveolar lavage fluid. Our studies reveal a novel contribution for TSLP in preventing damage-induced airway inflammation.