Coronavirus Disease 2019: Coronaviruses and Blood Safety

Transfus Med Rev. 2020 Apr;34(2):75-80. doi: 10.1016/j.tmrv.2020.02.003. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Abstract

With the outbreak of unknown pneumonia in Wuhan, China, in December 2019, a new coronavirus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), aroused the attention of the entire world. The current outbreak of infections with SARS-CoV-2 is termed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The World Health Organization declared COVID-19 in China as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Two other coronavirus infections-SARS in 2002-2003 and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012-both caused severe respiratory syndrome in humans. All 3 of these emerging infectious diseases leading to a global spread are caused by β-coronaviruses. Although coronaviruses usually infect the upper or lower respiratory tract, viral shedding in plasma or serum is common. Therefore, there is still a theoretical risk of transmission of coronaviruses through the transfusion of labile blood products. Because more and more asymptomatic infections are being found among COVID-19 cases, considerations of blood safety and coronaviruses have arisen especially in endemic areas. In this review, we detail current evidence and understanding of the transmission of SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2 through blood products as of February 10, 2020, and also discuss pathogen inactivation methods on coronaviruses.

Keywords: 2019-nCoV; Blood safety; COVID-19; Coronavirus; MERS; Pathogen inactivation technology; SARS; SARS-CoV-2.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Asymptomatic Infections
  • Betacoronavirus*
  • Blood Safety*
  • China / epidemiology
  • Coronavirus Infections / blood
  • Coronavirus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Coronavirus Infections / prevention & control*
  • Humans
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus
  • Pandemics / prevention & control*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / blood
  • Pneumonia, Viral / epidemiology*
  • Pneumonia, Viral / prevention & control*
  • Public Health
  • Risk
  • SARS Virus
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome / prevention & control

Supplementary concepts

  • COVID-19
  • severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2