Accumulation of amyloid β oligomers (AβO) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) impairs hippocampal theta and gamma oscillations. These oscillations are important in memory functions and depend on distinct subtypes of hippocampal interneurons such as somatostatin-positive (SST) and parvalbumin-positive (PV) interneurons. Here, we investigated whether AβO causes dysfunctions in SST and PV interneurons by optogenetically manipulating them during theta and gamma oscillations in vivo in AβO-injected SST-Cre or PV-Cre mice. Hippocampal in vivo multi-electrode recordings revealed that optogenetic activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2)-expressing SST and PV interneurons in AβO-injected mice selectively restored AβO-induced reduction of the peak power of theta and gamma oscillations, respectively, and resynchronized CA1 pyramidal cell (PC) spikes. Moreover, SST and PV interneuron spike phases were resynchronized relative to theta and gamma oscillations, respectively. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings in CA1 PC in ex vivo hippocampal slices from AβO-injected mice revealed that optogenetic activation of SST and PV interneurons enhanced spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) selectively at theta and gamma frequencies, respectively. Furthermore, analyses of the stimulus-response curve, paired-pulse ratio, and short-term plasticity of SST and PV interneuron-evoked IPSCs ex vivo showed that AβO increased the initial GABA release probability to depress SST/PV interneuron's inhibitory input to CA1 PC selectively at theta and gamma frequencies, respectively. Our results reveal frequency-specific and interneuron subtype-specific presynaptic dysfunctions of SST and PV interneurons' input to CA1 PC as the synaptic mechanisms underlying AβO-induced impairments of hippocampal network oscillations and identify them as potential therapeutic targets for restoring hippocampal network oscillations in early AD.
Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Amyloid beta oligomers; Hippocampus; Network oscillations; Parvalbumin interneuron; Somatostatin interneuron.