Home fortification of foods with multiple micronutrient powders for health and nutrition in children under two years of age

Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Feb 28;2(2):CD008959. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008959.pub3.


Background: Vitamin and mineral deficiencies, particularly those of iron, vitamin A, and zinc, affect more than two billion people worldwide. Young children are highly vulnerable because of rapid growth and inadequate dietary practices. Multiple micronutrient powders (MNPs) are single-dose packets containing multiple vitamins and minerals in powder form, which are mixed into any semi-solid food for children six months of age or older. The use of MNPs for home or point-of-use fortification of complementary foods has been proposed as an intervention for improving micronutrient intake in children under two years of age. In 2014, MNP interventions were implemented in 43 countries and reached over three million children. This review updates a previous Cochrane Review, which has become out-of-date.

Objectives: To assess the effects and safety of home (point-of-use) fortification of foods with MNPs on nutrition, health, and developmental outcomes in children under two years of age. For the purposes of this review, home fortification with MNP refers to the addition of powders containing vitamins and minerals to semi-solid foods immediately before consumption. This can be done at home or at any other place that meals are consumed (e.g. schools, refugee camps). For this reason, MNPs are also referred to as point-of-use fortification.

Search methods: We searched the following databases up to July 2019: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and eight other databases. We also searched four trials registers, contacted relevant organisations and authors of included studies to identify any ongoing or unpublished studies, and searched the reference lists of included studies.

Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs with individual randomisation or cluster-randomisation. Participants were infants and young children aged 6 to 23 months at the time of intervention, with no identified specific health problems. The intervention consisted of consumption of food fortified at the point of use with MNP formulated with at least iron, zinc, and vitamin A, compared with placebo, no intervention, or use of iron-containing supplements, which is standard practice.

Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility of studies against the inclusion criteria, extracted data from included studies, and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. We reported categorical outcomes as risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and continuous outcomes as mean differences (MDs) and 95% CIs. We used the GRADE approach to assess the certainty of evidence.

Main results: We included 29 studies (33,147 children) conducted in low- and middle-income countries in Asia, Africa, Latin America, and the Caribbean, where anaemia is a public health problem. Twenty-six studies with 27,051 children contributed data. The interventions lasted between 2 and 44 months, and the powder formulations contained between 5 and 22 nutrients. Among the 26 studies contributing data, 24 studies (26,486 children) compared the use of MNP versus no intervention or placebo; the two remaining studies compared the use of MNP versus an iron-only supplement (iron drops) given daily. The main outcomes of interest were related to anaemia and iron status. We assessed most of the included studies at low risk of selection and attrition bias. We considered some studies to be at high risk of performance and detection bias due to lack of blinding. Most studies were funded by government programmes or foundations; only two were funded by industry. Home fortification with MNP, compared with no intervention or placebo, reduced the risk of anaemia in infants and young children by 18% (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.90; 16 studies; 9927 children; moderate-certainty evidence) and iron deficiency by 53% (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.56; 7 studies; 1634 children; high-certainty evidence). Children receiving MNP had higher haemoglobin concentrations (MD 2.74 g/L, 95% CI 1.95 to 3.53; 20 studies; 10,509 children; low-certainty evidence) and higher iron status (MD 12.93 μg/L, 95% CI 7.41 to 18.45; 7 studies; 2612 children; moderate-certainty evidence) at follow-up compared with children receiving the control intervention. We did not find an effect on weight-for-age (MD 0.02, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.07; 10 studies; 9287 children; moderate-certainty evidence). Few studies reported morbidity outcomes (three to five studies each outcome) and definitions varied, but MNP did not increase diarrhoea, upper respiratory infection, malaria, or all-cause morbidity. In comparison with daily iron supplementation, the use of MNP produced similar results for anaemia (RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.58 to 1.39; 1 study; 145 children; low-certainty evidence) and haemoglobin concentrations (MD -2.81 g/L, 95% CI -10.84 to 5.22; 2 studies; 278 children; very low-certainty evidence) but less diarrhoea (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.72; 1 study; 262 children; low-certainty of evidence). However, given the limited quantity of data, these results should be interpreted cautiously. Reporting of death was infrequent, although no trials reported deaths attributable to the intervention. Information on side effects and morbidity, including malaria and diarrhoea, was scarce. It appears that use of MNP is efficacious among infants and young children aged 6 to 23 months who are living in settings with different prevalences of anaemia and malaria endemicity, regardless of intervention duration. MNP intake adherence was variable and in some cases comparable to that achieved in infants and young children receiving standard iron supplements as drops or syrups.

Authors' conclusions: Home fortification of foods with MNP is an effective intervention for reducing anaemia and iron deficiency in children younger than two years of age. Providing MNP is better than providing no intervention or placebo and may be comparable to using daily iron supplementation. The benefits of this intervention as a child survival strategy or for developmental outcomes are unclear. Further investigation of morbidity outcomes, including malaria and diarrhoea, is needed. MNP intake adherence was variable and in some cases comparable to that achieved in infants and young children receiving standard iron supplements as drops or syrups.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Avitaminosis / prevention & control
  • Child, Preschool
  • Deficiency Diseases
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Food, Fortified*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology*
  • Micronutrients / administration & dosage*
  • Micronutrients / deficiency
  • Nutritional Status
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Trace Elements / administration & dosage
  • Vitamins / administration & dosage*


  • Micronutrients
  • Trace Elements
  • Vitamins