Distinct hemodynamic responses to (pyr)apelin-13 in large animal models

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2020 Apr 1;318(4):H747-H755. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00365.2019. Epub 2020 Feb 28.


This study tested the hypothesis that (pyr)apelin-13 dose-dependently augments myocardial contractility and coronary blood flow, irrespective of changes in systemic hemodynamics. Acute effects of intravenous (pyr)apelin-13 administration (10 to 1,000 nM) on blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular pressure and volume, and coronary parameters were measured in dogs and pigs. Administration of (pyr)apelin-13 did not influence blood pressure (P = 0.59), dP/dtmax (P = 0.26), or dP/dtmin (P = 0.85) in dogs. However, heart rate dose-dependently increased > 70% (P < 0.01), which was accompanied by a significant increase in coronary blood flow (P < 0.05) and reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume (P < 0.001). In contrast, (pyr)apelin-13 did not significantly affect hemodynamics, coronary blood flow, or indexes of contractile function in pigs. Furthermore, swine studies found no effect of intracoronary (pyr)apelin-13 administration on coronary blood flow (P = 0.83) or vasorelaxation in isolated, endothelium-intact (P = 0.89) or denuded (P = 0.38) coronary artery rings. Examination of all data across (pyr)apelin-13 concentrations revealed an exponential increase in cardiac output as peripheral resistance decreased across pigs and dogs (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.78). Assessment of the Frank-Starling relationship demonstrated a significant linear relationship between left ventricular end-diastolic volume and stroke volume across species (P < 0.001; R2 = 0.70). Taken together, these findings demonstrate that (pyr)apelin-13 does not directly influence myocardial contractility or coronary blood flow in either dogs or pigs.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our findings provide much needed insight regarding the pharmacological cardiac and coronary effects of (pyr)apelin-13 in larger animal preparations. In particular, data highlight distinct hemodynamic responses of apelin across species, which are independent of any direct effect on myocardial contractility or perfusion.

Keywords: apelin; coronary blood flow; dog; inotropy; pig.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blood Pressure
  • Coronary Circulation / drug effects*
  • Coronary Vessels / drug effects
  • Dogs
  • Heart Rate
  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / pharmacology*
  • Male
  • Myocardial Contraction / drug effects*
  • Stroke Volume
  • Swine
  • Vasodilation


  • Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
  • apelin 13, Pyr(1)-