Risk factors for spontaneous consecutive exotropia in children with refractive and nonrefractive accommodative esotropia

Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2020 May;64(3):292-297. doi: 10.1007/s10384-020-00724-5. Epub 2020 Feb 27.


Purpose: To investigate the risk factors for development of spontaneous consecutive exotropia (ScXT) among patients with refractive and nonrefractive accommodative esotropia (AET).

Study design: Retrospective.

Methods: Patients who were diagnosed with AET were reviewed from January, 2000 to December, 2016. The patients who developed ScXT after well corrected hyperopia were defined as exodeviation group (n = 51), and the patients who did not show exodeviation and were well controlled with eyeglasses were defined as the control group (n = 117). The changes in cycloplegic refraction, mean angle deviation at initial visit, time till the first correction of esodeviation, presence of amblyopia and accompanying strabismus were compared between the two groups.

Results: The mean interval from the first visit to correction of esodeviation under 8 PD in the exodeviation group was shorter than of the control group (P = 0.008). Patients in the exodeviation group showed more dissociated vertical deviation (DVD) (P = 0.015) and faster reduction in hyperopia per year (more hyperopic eye: P = 0.006; less hyperopic eye: P = 0.034) than the patients in the control group. Exodeviation was found mean 42.31 ± 41.13 months after hyperopia correction. There were no differences in angle deviation at initial visit, and presence of amblyopia.

Conclusion: ScXT can be found in AET with faster reduction in hyperopia per year, accompanied by DVD, or in eyes with esodeviation corrected in relatively shorter time. It can be noted even in patients with good alignment over a long-term, so long-term follow-up is recommended.

Keywords: Accommodative esotropia; Hyperopia; Spontaneous consecutive exotropia.

MeSH terms

  • Accommodation, Ocular / physiology*
  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Esotropia / complications*
  • Esotropia / physiopathology
  • Exotropia / diagnosis
  • Exotropia / epidemiology*
  • Eyeglasses
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Refraction, Ocular / physiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Vision Tests
  • Vision, Binocular / physiology
  • Visual Acuity / physiology