Background: The contact factor XII (FXII) activates upon contact with a variety of charged surfaces. Activated FXII (FXIIa) activates factor XI, which activates factor IX, resulting in thrombin generation, platelet activation, and fibrin formation. In both in vitro and in vivo rabbit models, components of medical devices, including extracorporeal oxygenators, are known to incite fibrin formation in a FXII-dependent manner. Since FXII has no known role in hemostasis and its inhibition is therefore likely a safe antithrombotic approach, we investigated whether FXII inhibition also reduces accumulation of platelets in extracorporeal oxygenators.
Objectives: We aimed to determine the effect of FXII inhibition on platelet deposition in perfused extracorporeal membrane oxygenators in nonhuman primates.
Methods: A potent FXII neutralizing monoclonal antibody, 5C12, was administered intravenously to block contact activation in baboons. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenators were temporarily deployed into chronic arteriovenous access shunts. Radiolabeled platelet deposition in oxygenators was quantified in real time using gamma camera imaging. Biochemical assays were performed to characterize the method of action of 5C12.
Results: The anti-FXII monoclonal antibody 5C12 recognized both the alpha and beta forms of human and baboon FXII by binding to the protease-containing domain, and inhibited FXIIa activity. Administration of 5C12 to baboons reduced platelet deposition and fibrin formation in the extracorporeal membrane oxygenators, in both the presence and absence of systemic low-dose unfractionated heparin. The antiplatelet dose of 5C12 did not cause measurable increases in template bleeding times in baboons.
Conclusions: FXII represents a possible therapeutic and safe target for reducing platelet deposition and fibrin formation during medical interventions including extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.
Keywords: blood platelet; extracorporeal membrane oxygenation; factor XII; hemostasis; thrombosis.
© 2020 The Authors. Research and Practice in Thrombosis and Haemostasis published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc on behalf of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.