Background: We have recently demonstrated that left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) dynamically changes over time with prognostic impacts in Stage C/D patients, namely, those who have a current or past history of heart failure (HF). However, it is unknown whether this is also the case in asymptomatic Stage B patients, namely, those who have a risk of HF, but do not have a history of HF.
Methods: In our CHART-2 Study (N = 10,219), we enrolled 4005 Stage B patients and divided them into 3 groups by LVEF; preserved EF (pEF, LVEF ≥50%, N = 3526), mid-range EF (mrEF, LVEF 41-49%, N = 302), and reduced EF (rEF, LVEF ≤40%, N = 177). We examined the prognostic impacts of LVEF transitions among the 3 groups in comparison with 4477 patients with Stage C/D HF.
Results: Stage B were characterized by less severe clinical status and better prognosis compared with Stage C/D. Stage B in mrEF and rEF at baseline dynamically transitioned to other groups at 1-year, whereas those in pEF unchanged; at 1-year, mrEF transitioned to pEF/rEF by 50/16%, and rEF transitioned to pEF/mrEF by 25/31%, respectively, whereas pEF transitioned to mrEF/rEF by only 3.6/0.7%, respectively, which were consistent with findings in findings with Stage C/D. Although LVEF decrease was directly associated with all-cause mortality in both the Stage B and Stage C/D with pEF, factors related to LVEF changes were different between the 2 groups.
Conclusions: In Stage B, LVEF dynamically changes with prognostic impacts as in Stage C/D, whereas different determination factors may be involved in the 2 stages.
Clinical trial registration: Chronic Heart Failure Analysis and Registry in the Tohoku District (CHART)-2 (NCT00418041).
Keywords: Epidemiology; Heart failure; Left ventricular ejection fraction; Prognosis; Prognosis factor.
Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Conflict of interest statement
Declaration of competing interest All authors declare no competing interests for the present study. Conflict of interests is shown in Supplemental files.
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