Maternal exposure to ambient particulate matter and green spaces and fetal renal function

Environ Res. 2020 May;184:109285. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2020.109285. Epub 2020 Feb 23.


Exposure to air pollution has been associated with different harmful effects and exposure to greenspace has been related to improved human health. However, the available evidence on the impact of these exposures on renal function is still scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between exposure to ambient levels of PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and indicators of exposure to traffic as well as greenspace during pregnancy and fetal renal function based on the umbilical cord blood. This study was based on 150 pregnant women residing in Sabzevar, Iran (2018). Multiple linear regression models were developed to estimate the association of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), creatinine (Cr) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) with exposure to air pollution, traffic, and greenspace (one at a time) controlled for relevant covariates. There was an inverse significant association between exposure to PM1, PM2.5, PM10 and total street length in a 100 m buffer around the home and eGFR. Increase in distance to major road and residential surrounding greenness (100 m buffer) was associated with increase in eGFR. We observed a significant direct association between exposure to PMs as well as street length in 100 m buffer and serum level of Cr. There was also an inverse association between distance to major road and NDVI in 100 m buffer and Cr. The associations for blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were not statistically significant. Our results suggest that exposure to air pollution during pregnancy could have negative impact and exposure to greenspace could have positive impact on renal function of fetal.

Keywords: Air pollution; Greenspace; Natural environment; Renal function; Umbilical cord blood.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants* / analysis
  • Air Pollutants* / toxicity
  • Air Pollution* / analysis
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Fetus* / drug effects
  • Fetus* / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Kidney* / drug effects
  • Kidney* / physiopathology
  • Maternal Exposure* / adverse effects
  • Particulate Matter / toxicity
  • Pregnancy


  • Air Pollutants
  • Particulate Matter