Decreased contrast enhancement on high-resolution vessel wall imaging of unruptured intracranial aneurysms in patients taking aspirin

J Neurosurg. 2020 Mar 6;1-7. doi: 10.3171/2019.12.JNS193023. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Objective: Inflammation plays an integral role in the formation, growth, and progression to rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs). Animal and human studies have suggested that, due to its antiinflammatory effect, aspirin (ASA) may decrease the risks of growth and rupture of UIAs. High-resolution vessel wall imaging (HR-VWI) has emerged as a noninvasive method to assess vessel wall inflammation and UIA instability. To the authors' knowledge, to date no studies have found a significant correlation between patient use of ASA and contrast enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI.

Methods: The University of Iowa HR-VWI Project database was analyzed. This database is a compilation of data on patients with UIAs who prospectively underwent HR-VWI on a 3T Siemens MRI scanner. The presence of aneurysmal wall enhancement was objectively defined using the aneurysm-to-pituitary stalk contrast ratio (CRstalk). This ratio was calculated by measuring the maximal signal intensity in the aneurysmal wall and the pituitary stalk on postcontrast T1-weighted images. Data on aneurysm size, morphology, and location and patient demographics and comorbidities were collected. Use of ASA was defined as daily intake of ≥ 81 mg during the previous 6 months or longer. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors independently associated with increased contrast enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI.

Results: In total, 74 patients harboring 96 UIAs were included in the study. The mean patient age was 64.7 ± 12.4 years, and 60 patients (81%) were women. Multivariate analysis showed that age (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.05-1.19), aneurysm size ≥ 7 mm (OR 21.3, 95% CI 4.88-92.8), and location in the anterior communicating, posterior communicating, and basilar arteries (OR 10.7, 95% CI 2.45-46.5) were significantly associated with increased wall enhancement on HR-VWI. On the other hand, use of ASA was significantly associated with decreased aneurysmal wall enhancement on HR-VWI (OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.83, p = 0.026).

Conclusions: The study results establish a correlation between use of ASA daily for ≥ 6 months and significant decreases in wall enhancement of UIAs on HR-VWI. The findings also demonstrate that detection of wall enhancement using HR-MRI may be a valuable noninvasive method for assessing aneurysmal wall inflammation and UIA instability.

Keywords: ACA = anterior cerebral artery; ACoA = anterior communicating artery; ASA = aspirin; BA = basilar artery; CE-MRA = contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography; CRstalk = aneurysm-to–pituitary stalk contrast ratio; HR-VWI = high-resolution vessel wall imaging; ICA = internal carotid artery; ISUIA = International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms; MCA = middle cerebral artery; PCoA = posterior communicating artery; PHASES = population, hypertension, age, size of aneurysm, earlier SAH from another aneurysm, and site of aneurysm; ROI = region of interest; SAH = subarachnoid hemorrhage; SCA = superior cerebellar artery; SI = signal intensity; UIA = unruptured intracranial aneurysm; VA = vertebral artery; aSAH = aneurysmal SAH; aneurysm; aspirin; circumferential enhancement; high-resolution vessel wall imaging; inflammation; magnetic resonance imaging; vascular disorders.