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Review
. 2020 Mar 30;13(1):24-45.
doi: 10.15283/ijsc19031.

Manipulated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Applications in Neurodegenerative Diseases

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Free PMC article
Review

Manipulated Mesenchymal Stem Cells Applications in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Seyyed Omid Sadatpoor et al. Int J Stem Cells. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have multilinear differentiation and self-renewal abilities. These cells are immune-privileged as they express no or low level of class-II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) and other costimulatory molecules. Having neuroprotective and regenerative properties, MSCs can be used to ameliorate several intractable neurodegenerative disorders by affecting both innate and adaptive immune systems. Several manipulations like pretreating MSCs with different conditions or agents, and using molecules derived from MSCs or genetically manipulating them, are the common and practical ways that can be used to strengthen MSCs survival and potency. Improved MSCs can have significantly enhanced impacts on diseases compared to MSCs not manipulated. In this review, we describe some of the most important manipulations that have been exerted on MSCs to improve their therapeutic functions and their applications in ameliorating three prevalent neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.

Keywords: MSCs manipulation; Mesenchymal stem cells; Neurodegenerative diseases.

Conflict of interest statement

Potential Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflicting financial interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
MSCs immunomodulatory effects on immune cells. MSCs have inhibitory effects on both innate and adaptive immunity. Their immunomodulatory impacts which are conducted by secretion of soluble factors and cell to cell contact include: (1) inhibition of B and NK cells proliferation and functions; (2) suppression of T cells proliferation and Th1 differentiation, induction of TH2 and Treg cells; (3) inhibition of dendritic cell and monocyte maturation and activation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Modifications of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Preconditioning, genetic and epigenetic manipulation of MSCs and also cell free therapy are key strategies to get better survival, proliferation and function of MSCs. Manipulation of MSCs increase neural cell differentiation, regeneration of damaged tissue, angiogenesis, immunomodulation, and also improve antiapoptotic/antioxidation effects of MSCs which are used in treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

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