Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that have multilinear differentiation and self-renewal abilities. These cells are immune-privileged as they express no or low level of class-II major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) and other costimulatory molecules. Having neuroprotective and regenerative properties, MSCs can be used to ameliorate several intractable neurodegenerative disorders by affecting both innate and adaptive immune systems. Several manipulations like pretreating MSCs with different conditions or agents, and using molecules derived from MSCs or genetically manipulating them, are the common and practical ways that can be used to strengthen MSCs survival and potency. Improved MSCs can have significantly enhanced impacts on diseases compared to MSCs not manipulated. In this review, we describe some of the most important manipulations that have been exerted on MSCs to improve their therapeutic functions and their applications in ameliorating three prevalent neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease.
Keywords: MSCs manipulation; Mesenchymal stem cells; Neurodegenerative diseases.
Conflict of interest statement
The authors have no conflicting financial interest.
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