The group of rare malignant ovarian tumors includes the group of germ cell tumors, sex cords stromal ovarian tumors, small cell carcinoma, malignant Brenner tumors, rare epithelial tumors such as mucinous carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, or low-grade serous carcinoma, as well as ovarian carcinosarcoma. Together they comprise about 10% of all ovarian tumors. Due to their low prevalence and their heterogeneity, data and treatment recommendations are limited. Even though all ovarian tumors are staged according to the FIGO staging of epithelial ovarian tumors, treatment differs especially in germ cell tumors and sex cords stromal ovarian tumors. Non-epithelial ovarian tumors can arise from a variety of ovarian precursor cells such as germ cells, granulosa cells, theca cells, or stromal fibroblasts. As can be expected already due to their divergent precursor lesions, these malignancies are substantially different but united by their rarity. This overview article gives a comprehensive summary on the pathology and clinical presentation, as well as therapy recommendations of a selection of those rare ovarian tumors, based on the latest national guidelines and related important publications.
Keywords: Clear cell carcinoma; Germ cell tumors; Mucinous carcinoma; Sex cords stromal tumors.
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