Background: Studies in prospective cohorts have suggested that enterovirus infections are associated with the appearance of islet autoantibodies that precede later appearance of type 1 diabetes (T1D). It was shown that in addition to an antibody-mediated anti-coxsackievirus (CV)-B neutralizing activity of serum from patients with T1D, there was also enhancing anti-CV-B activity in vitro. In this study, the patterns of enhancing and neutralizing anti-CV activities were analysed from consecutive serum samples collected from children who were followed from birth until they developed T1D in the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) study and compared to those in non-diabetic control children.
Methods: The titres of serum neutralizing activity were analysed against those CVs which were detected in the stools in these children (CV-B3, CV-B5 or CV-A4) using plaque assay. The enhancing activity of these serum samples was analysed by measuring interferon-alpha (INF-α) production in cultures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) inoculated with a mixture of these viruses and diluted serum.
Results: A sustained anti-CV enhancing activity was observed in consecutive serum samples in patients with T1D. The pattern of responses differed between children who developed T1D and control children. In patients, the anti-CV enhancing activity was predominant or even exclusive over the neutralizing activity, whereas in controls the enhancing and neutralising activities were more balanced or the neutralizing activity was largely predominant.
Conclusions: Evaluating the anti-enterovirus neutralizing and enhancing activity of serum samples can be useful to investigate further the relationship between enteroviruses and the development of T1D.
Keywords: CV-A4; CV-B3; CV-B5; IFN- α; enhancing and neutralizing antibodies; enterovirus; in vitro; type 1 diabetes.
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.