Staging of Surgical Procedures in Comorbid Congenital Tracheal Stenosis and Congenital Cardiovascular Disease

Ann Thorac Surg. 2020 Jun;109(6):1889-1896. doi: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.01.034. Epub 2020 Feb 29.


Background: Comorbid long segment congenital tracheal stenosis and congenital cardiovascular abnormalities in children pose significant challenges with regard to repairing these abnormalities simultaneously or in stages. The aim of this study was to explore whether this combination of abnormalities needs a staged approach for surgical repairs.

Methods: All children who underwent both tracheal and cardiac surgical procedures at a tertiary hospital from 1995 to 2018 were analyzed retrospectively for mortality, ventilation days, postoperative intensive care unit days, mediastinitis, and unplanned reoperation by dividing them into simultaneous repairs (group 1), staged repairs within the same admission (group 2), and staged repairs during different admissions (group 3).

Results: Of 110 patients included in the study (group 1, 74; group 2. 10; and group 3, 26 patients), there was no significant difference in mortality (P = .85), median ventilation days (P = .99), median intensive care unit days (P = .23), unplanned airway reoperation (P = .36), and unplanned cardiac reoperation (P = .77). There was a significant difference in the rate of mediastinitis (group 1, 3%; group 2, 10%; and group 3, 19%; P = .02). There was no significant difference in 5-year survival (group 1, 86.2%; group 2, 77.8%; and group 3, 85.1%; P = .86). A higher STAT category was identified to be a risk factor for mortality in multivariate Cox regression analysis (relative risk, 5.45).

Conclusions: Combined tracheal and cardiac abnormalities need a stratified approach to facilitate better clinical outcomes. Although the trajectory of care is often based on the clinical presentation, establishing a management protocol will be helpful, for which setting an international database will be useful.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple*
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / classification
  • Comorbidity
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / epidemiology
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Taiwan / epidemiology
  • Thoracic Surgical Procedures / classification*
  • Tracheal Stenosis / congenital
  • Tracheal Stenosis / epidemiology
  • Tracheal Stenosis / surgery*
  • Treatment Outcome