Spanish Validation of the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF): Prevalence and Relationship with Online Gambling and Quality of Life

Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020 Feb 28;17(5):1562. doi: 10.3390/ijerph17051562.


Online gaming is a very common form of leisure among adolescents and young people, although its excessive and/or compulsive use is associated with psychological impairments in a minority of gamers. The latest (fifth) edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5, Section III) tentatively introduced Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD). Since then, a number of evaluation tools using the DSM-5 criteria have been developed, including the Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form (IGDS9-SF). The main objective of this study was to translate and adapt the IGDS9-SF into Spanish, as well as to obtain indicators relating to its validity and reliability. The Spanish version of four scales were administered: IGDS9-SF, Mobile Phone-Related Experiences Questionnaire (CERM), Online Gambling Disorder Questionnaire (OGD-Q), and KIDSCREEN-27. The sample comprised 535 Vocational Training students (mean age 18.35 years; SD±2.13; 78.5% males) who reported playing video games in the past 12 months. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a one-dimensional model with a good fit while the reliability indicators were satisfactory. Findings indicated that 1.9% of gamers were classified with IGD (meeting five or more criteria for more than 12 months). Additionally, another 1.9% were considered gamers 'at-risk' because they endorsed four criteria. Positive and significant relationships were found between the IGDS9-SF, the CERM, and the OGD-Q. Participants classified with IGD had poorer health-related quality of life. In conclusion, the Spanish IGDS9-SF is a valid and reliable instrument to assess IGD according to the DSM-5.

Keywords: Internet Gaming Disorder; Internet Gaming Disorder Scale-Short Form; behavioral addiction; gaming addiction; gaming disorder.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Behavior, Addictive*
  • Female
  • Gambling*
  • Humans
  • Internet*
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Psychometrics
  • Quality of Life
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Spain
  • Surveys and Questionnaires*
  • Video Games*
  • Young Adult