Metamaterials are intriguing candidates for energy conversion systems, and contribute to the control of thermal radiation spectra. Large-scale devices are required to provide high energy flux transfer. However, the surface microstructure of large-scale metamaterials suffers from fabrication defects, inducing optical property degradation. We develop a novel approach to quantitatively evaluate the optical properties of defective 2D metamaterials based on diffraction imaging. The surrogate surface structure is reconstructed from diffraction pattern, and analyzed geometrical features to evaluate the optical properties. This approach shows potential for in-line and real-time continuous diagnosis during industrial fabrication, and high-throughput for large-scale 2D metamaterial.