Poly(I:C) augments inactivated influenza virus-chitosan nanovaccine induced cell mediated immune response in pigs vaccinated intranasally

Vet Microbiol. 2020 Mar:242:108611. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108611. Epub 2020 Feb 13.


To improve the innate and adaptive immune responses elicited by a killed/inactivated swine influenza virus antigen (KAg)-loaded chitosan nanoparticles (CS NPs-KAg), we used the adjuvant, poly(I:C). The formulated CS NPs-KAg and CS NPs-poly(I:C) had a net surface charge of +30.7 mV and +25.1 mV, respectively. The CS NPs-KAg was coadministered with CS NPs-poly(I:C) (chitosan nanovaccine) as intranasal mist. Vaccinations enhanced homologous (H1N2-OH10) and heterologous (H1N1-OH7) hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers in both vaccinated and virus-challenged animals compared to the control soluble poly(I:C) vaccinated pigs. In addition, the chitosan nanovaccine induced the proliferation of antigen-specific IFNγ secreting T-helper/memory and γδ T cells compared to control poly(I:C) group; and an increased Th1 (IFNγ, IL-6 and IL-2) and Th2 (IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines mRNA expression in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes compared to lymphoid tissues obtained from pigs given commercial influenza vaccine. The virus load in nasal passages and microscopic lung lesions were partially reduced by both chitosan nanovaccine and commercial vaccine. The HA gene homology between the vaccine and challenge viruses indicated that the chitosan nanovaccine induced a cross-protective immune response. In conclusion, coadministration of CS NPs-poly(I:C) with CS NPs-KAg augmented the cross-reactive specific HI titers and the cell-mediated immune responses in pigs.

Keywords: Chitosan nanovaccine; Innate and adaptive immunity; Intranasal delivery; Pigs; Poly(I:C); Swine influenza virus.

MeSH terms

  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Viral / blood
  • Chitosan
  • Cytokines / genetics
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests
  • Immunity, Cellular*
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Influenza Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines / immunology*
  • Nanoparticles / administration & dosage*
  • Orthomyxoviridae Infections / prevention & control*
  • Poly I-C / administration & dosage*
  • Poly I-C / immunology
  • Swine
  • Swine Diseases / prevention & control
  • Th1 Cells / immunology
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Viral Load


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antibodies, Viral
  • Cytokines
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Chitosan
  • Poly I-C