Background: The long-term benefits of local therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) have been widely documented. In this context, single fraction gamma knife radiosurgery (SF-GKRS) is routinely used in the management of brain metastases. However, SF-GKRS is not always feasible due to volumetric and regional constraints. We intend to illustrate how a dose-volume adaptive hypofractionated GKRS technique based on two concurrent dose prescriptions termed rapid rescue radiosurgery (RRR) can be utilized in this particular scenario.
Case description: A 56-year-old man presented with left-sided hemiparesis; the imaging showed a 13.1 cc brain metastasis in the right central sulcus (Met 1). Further investigation confirmed the histology to be a metastatic clear cell RCC. Met 1 was treated with upfront RRR. Follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 10 months showed further volume regression of Met 1; however, concurrently, a new 17.3 cc lesion was reported in the boundaries of the left frontotemporal region (Met 2) as well as a small metastasis (<1 cc) in the left temporal lobe (Met 3). Met 2 and Met 3 underwent RRR and SF-GKRS, respectively.
Results: Gradual and sustained tumor ablation of Met 1 and Met 2 was demonstrated on a 20 months long follow- up. The patient succumbed to extracranial disease 21 months after the treatment of Met 1 without evidence of neurological impairment post-RRR.
Conclusion: Despite poor prognosis and precluding clinical factors (failing systemic treatment, eloquent location, and radioresistant histology), RRR provided optimal tumor ablation and salvage of neurofunction with limited toxicity throughout follow-up.
Keywords: Brain metastases; Engel score; Hypofractionated gamma knife radiosurgery; Karnofsky performance status; Metastatic renal cell carcinoma; Recursive partitioning analysis; Single-dose gamma knife radiosurgery.
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