Background: Rhabdomyolysis is a life-threatening disease that can lead to severe hyperkalemia, acute kidney injury (AKI) and hypovolemic shock. The predictive factors of AKI and acute to chronic kidney disease (CKD) transition remain poorly described.
Methods: This multicenter retrospective study enrolled 387 patients with severe rhabdomyolysis (CPK > 5000 U/L). Primary end-point was the development of severe AKI, defined as stage 2 or 3 of KDIGO classification. Secondary end-points included the incidence of AKI to CKD transition.
Results: Among the 387 patients, 315 (81.4%) developed AKI, including 171 (44.1%) with stage 3 AKI and 103 (26.6%) requiring RRT. Stage 2-3 AKI was strongly correlated with serum phosphate, potassium and bicarbonate at admission, as well as myoglobin over 8000 U/L and the need for mechanical ventilation. 42 patients (10.8%) died before day 28. In the 80 patients with available eGFR values both before and 3 months after the rhabdomyolysis, the decrease in eGFR (greater than 20 mL/min/1.73 m2 in 23 patients; 28.8%) was correlated to the severity of the AKI and serum myoglobin levels > 8000 U/L at admission.
Conclusions: Severe rhabdomyolysis leads to AKI in most patients admitted to an ICU. Mechanical ventilation and severity of the rhabdomyolysis, including myoglobin level, are associated with the risk of stage 2-3 AKI. The long-term renal decline is correlated to serum myoglobin at admission.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury; CKD progression; Myoglobin; Outcomes; Rhabdomyolysis.