The relationship of indoor radon gas concentration with multiple sclerosis: a case-control study

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2020 May;27(14):16350-16361. doi: 10.1007/s11356-020-08147-y. Epub 2020 Mar 2.


This case-control study aimed to investigate the relationship of indoor radon gas concentration and residential building characteristics with mental health with multiple sclerosis (MS) in Yazd City, Iran. The participants included 45 patients with MS and 100 healthy individuals. The participants' socio-economic status and residential building characteristics were investigated using a questionnaire. The radon gas concentration was also measured by CR-39 detectors over a 6-month period. Furthermore, the participants' mental health data were collected using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). The mean concentrations of radon gas were 66.77 and 65.33 Bq/m3 in the homes of patients with MS and healthy individuals, respectively, but the difference was not significant (p = 0.882). However, the radon gas concentration had a significant relationship with the building's age (p = 0.038), ventilation (p = 0.053), and cooling system (p = 0.021). A significant difference was observed between the two study groups in terms of the mental health (p = 0.018), depression (p = 0.037), somatic symptoms (p ≤ 0.001), and physical activity (p = 0.030). Since the indoor radon gas concentration did not have any significant relationship with MS prevalence, more studies are required in this regard, especially in long-term exposure.

Keywords: Case-control study; Indoor radon gas; Mental health; Multiple sclerosis (MS).

MeSH terms

  • Air Pollutants, Radioactive / analysis*
  • Air Pollution, Indoor / analysis*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cities
  • Housing
  • Humans
  • Iran
  • Multiple Sclerosis*
  • Radiation Monitoring*
  • Radon / analysis*


  • Air Pollutants, Radioactive
  • Radon