Aims: To determine the optimal dose(s) of once-monthly administration of efpeglenatide, a long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA), in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) inadequately controlled on metformin.
Materials and methods: In this phase 2, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial (NCT02081118), patients were randomized 1:1:1:1 to subcutaneous efpeglenatide (8, 12 or 16 mg once monthly; n = 158) or placebo (n = 51). The 16-week treatment period included a 4-week titration phase with once-weekly efpeglenatide 4 mg, followed by one dose of efpeglenatide 8 mg once monthly and two doses of the assigned once-monthly dose. The primary endpoint was change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 17.
Results: All efpeglenatide doses significantly reduced HbA1c versus placebo (P < 0.0001 for all). Overall, the least squares mean difference in HbA1c reductions between efpeglenatide and placebo was -7.7 mmol/mol (-0.71%; baseline to week 17). At week 17, a significantly greater proportion of efpeglenatide patients had an HbA1c level <53 mmol/mol (<7%) versus placebo (48.7% vs. 30.6%; P = 0.0320). Significant body weight loss occurred across all efpeglenatide doses (placebo-corrected reduction -2.0 kg [efpeglenatide overall]; P = 0.0003). The safety profile was consistent with GLP-1RAs, with gastrointestinal (GI) disorders being the most common treatment-emergent adverse events. Fluctuations in effects on glucose levels and rates of GI events occurred between peak and trough efpeglenatide concentrations.
Conclusions: Efpeglenatide once monthly (following once-weekly titration) has significant benefits with regard to HbA1c and weight reduction versus placebo in patients with T2D. Further studies are needed to evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of efpeglenatide once monthly.
Keywords: GLP-1 analogue; dose-response relationship; incretin; phase I-II study; type 2 diabetes (T2D).
© 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.