Biological Versus Chronological Aging: JACC Focus Seminar

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2020 Mar 3;75(8):919-930. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2019.11.062.


Aging is the main risk factor for vascular disease and ensuing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events, the leading causes of death worldwide. In a progressively aging population, it is essential to develop early-life biomarkers that efficiently identify individuals who are at high risk of developing accelerated vascular damage, with the ultimate goal of improving primary prevention and reducing the health care and socioeconomic impact of age-related cardiovascular disease. Studies in experimental models and humans have identified 9 highly interconnected hallmark processes driving mammalian aging. However, strategies to extend health span and life span require understanding of interindividual differences in age-dependent functional decline, known as biological aging. This review summarizes the current knowledge on biological age biomarkers, factors influencing biological aging, and antiaging interventions, with a focus on vascular aspects of the aging process and its cardiovascular disease related manifestations.

Keywords: antiaging therapy; biological age; biological age biomarkers; chronological age; vascular disease.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Aging*
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers*
  • Blood Vessels / physiology*
  • Humans


  • Biomarkers