Treatment regimens and glycosylated hemoglobin levels in youth with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes: Data from SEARCH (United States) and YDR (India) registries

Pediatr Diabetes. 2021 Feb;22(1):31-39. doi: 10.1111/pedi.13004. Epub 2020 Mar 24.


Objective: To compare treatment regimens and glycosylated hemoglobin (A1c) levels in Type 1 (T1D) and Type 2 diabetes (T2D) using diabetes registries from two countries-U.S. SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth (SEARCH) and Indian Registry of youth onset diabetes in India (YDR).

Methods: The SEARCH and YDR data were harmonized to the structure and terminology in the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model. Data used were from T1D and T2D youth diagnosed <20 years between 2006-2012 for YDR, and 2006, 2008, and 2012 for SEARCH. We compared treatment regimens and A1c levels across the two registries.

Results: There were 4003 T1D (SEARCH = 1899; YDR = 2104) and 611 T2D (SEARCH = 384; YDR = 227) youth. The mean A1c was higher in YDR compared to SEARCH (T1D:11.0% ± 2.9% vs 7.8% ± 1.7%, P < .001; T2D:9.9% ± 2.8% vs 7.2% ± 2.1%, P < .001). Among T1D youth in SEARCH, 65.1% were on a basal/bolus regimen, whereas in YDR, 52.8% were on once/twice daily insulin regimen. Pumps were used by 16.2% of SEARCH and 1.5% of YDR youth with T1D. Among T2D youth, in SEARCH and YDR, a majority were on metformin only (43.0% vs 30.0%), followed by insulin + any oral hypoglycemic agents (26.3% vs 13.7%) and insulin only (12.8% vs 18.9%), respectively.

Conclusion: We found significant differences between SEARCH and YDR in treatment patterns in T1D and T2D. A1c levels were higher in YDR than SEARCH youth, for both T1D and T2D, irrespective of the regimens used. Efforts to achieve better glycemic control for youth are urgently needed to reduce the risk of long-term complications.

Keywords: A1c levels; Type 1 diabetes; diabetes registry; youth onset Type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / therapy*
  • Female
  • Glycated Hemoglobin / analysis*
  • Humans
  • India
  • Male
  • Registries
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States


  • Glycated Hemoglobin A