Adherence to healthy dietary pattern and risk of kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2022 Jul;92(3-4):267-279. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000647. Epub 2020 Mar 6.

Abstract

Epidemiological studies show that adherence to healthy dietary patterns may be associated with a lower risk of decline in kidney function. However, existing evidence has not been quantitatively gathered. Pertinent observational studies investigating the association of adherence to a healthy dietary pattern, either priori-defined dietary pattern/indices or data-driven dietary patterns, with risk of kidney disease in the general population were identified by searching Medline and Scopus databases to May 28, 2018. A random-effects meta-analysis was applied. The analysis included eight prospective cohorts (5734 cases among 569,688 participants) and five cross-sectional studies (1955 cases among 16,614 participants). Higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern (either priori-defined or data-driven dietary patterns) was associated with a 28% lower risk of kidney disease in the analysis of prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.72, 95 % CI = 0.58, 0.86; I2 = 71%, n = 8). A subgroup analysis based on definition of healthy dietary pattern resulted in significant inverse association only in the subgroup of Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern (RR: 0.74, 95 % CI: 0.54, 0.93; I2 = 73%, n = 5). A dose-response analysis indicated a monotonic inverse association between adherence to the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern with risk of kidney disease. A 32% lower risk was observed in the analysis of cross-sectional studies (OR: 0.68, 95 % CI: 0.53, 0.83, I2 = 0%, n = 5). The findings suggest that higher adherence to a healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower risk of kidney disease.

Keywords: CKD; DASH diet; Dietary pattern; kidney disease; mediterranean diet; renal disorders.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diet
  • Dietary Approaches To Stop Hypertension*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension*
  • Kidney Diseases*
  • Prospective Studies