Prevalence of and related risk factors in oral mucosa diseases among residents in the Baoshan District of Shanghai, China

PeerJ. 2020 Feb 24:8:e8644. doi: 10.7717/peerj.8644. eCollection 2020.

Abstract

Background: Oral mucosal diseases (OMDs) encompass a variety of different types of diseases. Our aim was to evaluate the prevalence and related risk factors of OMDs among residents in the Baoshan District of Shanghai, China, and provide a scientific basis for prevention and control strategies.

Methods: A sample of 653 residents aged 17 to 92 years from the Baoshan community was investigated in 2014. Each resident was surveyed by questionnaire to evaluate their oral mucosa and oral mucosa examinations were conducted. We followed up with 607 residents in 2018. All data were statistically analyzed using the SPSS 25.0 software package (Chicago, IL, USA) at the general population, gender and age levels. A X2 test was used to compare rates of risk factors and logistic regression analysis was used to detect the correlation between disease and risk factors.

Results: The prevalence rate of OMDs was found to be 9.19%-9.56% (2014-2018). The most common OMDs were atrophic glossitis (1.84%), recurrent aphthous ulcer (RAU, 1.68%), burning mouth syndrome (BMS, 1.38%), oral lichen planus (OLP, 1.23%) and traumatic ulcers (1.23%). The prevalence of RAU and BMS in different age groups was significantly different. Tobacco and alcohol use and psychological factors in the OMDs group were higher than the no-OMDs group. Systemic diseases including diabetes mellitus (DM) was significantly relevant to OLP.

Conclusion: Age, tobacco and alcohol use, and psychological factor correlated strongly with the occurrence and development of OMDs, and they should be the focus of primary prevention. General epidemiological studies suggested that OLP was closely related to DM.

Keywords: Diabetes mellitus; Epidemiology investigation; Oral lichen planus; Oral mucosal diseases; Prevalence rate; Risk factors.