Refining rodent models of spinal cord injury

Exp Neurol. 2020 Jun:328:113273. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2020.113273. Epub 2020 Mar 3.


This report was produced by an Expert Working Group (EWG) consisting of UK-based researchers, veterinarians and regulators of animal experiments with specialist knowledge of the use of animal models of spinal cord injury (SCI). It aims to facilitate the implementation of the Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement), with an emphasis on refinement. Specific animal welfare issues were identified and discussed, and practical measures proposed, with the aim of reducing animal use and suffering, reducing experimental variability, and increasing translatability within this critically important research field.

Keywords: Animal model; Animal welfare; Paralysis; Refinement; Regeneration; Spinal contusion; Spinal cord injury; Spinal transection; Three Rs; Tissue repair; Translational research.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animal Welfare / standards*
  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Rodentia
  • Spinal Cord Injuries*