Background: 22q11.2 deletions and duplications are copy number variations (CNVs) that predispose to developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Both CNVs are associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while the deletion confers disproportionate risk for schizophrenia. Neurobehavioral profiles associated with these reciprocal CNVs in conjunction with brain imaging measures have not been reported.
Methods: We profiled the impact of 22q11.2 CNVs on neurobehavioral measures relevant to ASD and psychosis in 106 22q11.2 deletion carriers, 38 22q11.2 duplication carriers, and 82 demographically matched healthy control subjects. To determine whether brain-behavior relationships were altered in CNV carriers, we further tested for interactions between group and regional brain structure on neurobehavioral domains.
Results: Cognitive deficits were observed in both CNV groups, with the lowest IQs in deletion carriers. ASD and dimensionally measured ASD traits were elevated in both CNV groups; however, duplication carriers exhibited increased stereotypies compared to deletion carriers. Moreover, discriminant analysis using ASD subdomains distinguished between CNV cases with 76% accuracy. Both psychotic disorder diagnosis and dimensionally measured positive and negative symptoms were elevated in deletion carriers. Finally, healthy control subjects showed an inverse relationship between processing speed and cortical thickness in heteromodal association areas, which was absent in both CNV groups.
Conclusions: 22q11.2 CNVs differentially modulate intellectual functioning and psychosis-related symptomatology but converge on broad ASD-related symptomatology. However, subtle differences in ASD profiles distinguish CNV groups. Processing speed impairments, coupled with the lack of normative relationship between processing speed and cortical thickness in CNV carriers, implicate aberrant development of the cortical mantle in the pathology underlying impaired processing speed ability.
Keywords: Autism spectrum disorder; CNV; Cognition; Schizophrenia; Social behavior.
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