Normal-range sleep duration is an important factor for general health and metabolism, and insufficient or excessive sleep is associated with chronic metabolic disease. Among the many factors that affect sleep duration, sun exposure plays an important role in maintaining regular circadian rhythm and is also involved in the production and activation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], which regulates various functions in the body. However, 25(OH)D is available through food and various nutritional supplements without sun exposure, so it is important to find out the complex relationship among sun exposure, vitamin D status, and sleep duration. The relationship between sun exposure, vitamin D status, and sleep duration was analyzed in the nationwide survey and examination of 25,534 study populations, after adjusting for demographic characteristics, physical characteristics, lifestyle status, and socio-demographic variables. Vitamin D status alone did not show the relationship with sleep duration, although there were statistical relationships in the various factors including sun exposure with sleep duration. There was a statistical difference in 25(OH)D according to sleep duration, only in low sun exposure group. Subjects with low sun exposure and excessive sleep duration comparatively lower 25(OH)D than those with normal-range sleep, even after adjustment for potentially confounding factors. Individuals with limited exposure to sunlight should maintain adequate vitamin D status to have an appropriate sleep duration for health.