A longitudinal study of three patients with CT-scan documented paramedian thalamic infarctions (bilateral, primarily right, unilateral left) is reported and the neuropsychology of human paramedian thalamic infarction is reviewed. The neuropsychological deficits following these selected lesions, the nature of the clinical memory disorder, and the neuroanatomy of memory are discussed. The significance of cortical/subcortical relationship in explaining observed behavioral changes is emphasized. Brain damage with maximum involvement in the dorsomedial nuclei and mamillothalamic tracts appears to cause primarily a memory disorder and frontal-limbic behavioral changes, the severity and profile of deficits depending on lesion extent and location. Both anterograde and remote memory loss may be present. Asymmetry in memory at the level of the thalamus was observed, following the left-verbal, right-nonverbal dichotomy.