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Review
. 2020 Mar 7;378(2):31.
doi: 10.1007/s41061-020-0292-x.

DNA-Programmed Chemical Synthesis of Polymers and Inorganic Nanomaterials

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Free PMC article
Review

DNA-Programmed Chemical Synthesis of Polymers and Inorganic Nanomaterials

Xuemei Xu et al. Top Curr Chem (Cham). .
Free PMC article

Abstract

DNA nanotechnology, based on sequence-specific DNA recognition, could allow programmed self-assembly of sophisticated nanostructures with molecular precision. Extension of this technique to the preparation of broader types of nanomaterials would significantly improve nanofabrication technique to lower nanometer scale and even achieve single molecule operation. Using such exquisite DNA nanostructures as templates, chemical synthesis of polymer and inorganic nanomaterials could also be programmed with unprecedented accuracy and flexibility. This review summarizes recent advances in the synthesis and assembly of polymer and inorganic nanomaterials using DNA nanostructures as templates, and discusses the current challenges and future outlook of DNA templated nanotechnology.

Keywords: Bottom-up nanofabrication; DNA origami; Inorganic nanomaterial; Polymer nanomaterial; Programmed synthesis.

Conflict of interest statement

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
DNA-templated synthetic technology
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
DNA analogs with non-natural backbones that could be enzymatically synthesized based on DNA template
Fig. 3a,b
Fig. 3a,b
Synthesis of polymers based on DNA templates. a DNAsome-mediated multistep synthesis of a triamide product. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [38]. Copyright 2010 Nature Publishing Group. b Synthesis of polymers with higher molecular weight arising from the process of translation from DNA into proteins. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [39]. Copyright 2013 Nature Publishing Group
Fig. 4a–d
Fig. 4a–d
Biopolymers interacting with DNA nanostructures. a Liposome membrane encapsulation of DNA nanostructures. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [41]. Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society. b Positively charged cowpea chlorotic mottle virus capsid protein encapsulated square DNA origami. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [42]. Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society. c Electrostatic adsorption between synthetic polymer and DNA nanostructure template. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [46]. Copyright 2017 Nature Publishing Group. d Reversible assembly of synthetic and natural cationic polymers with DNA nanostructures. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [47] Copyright 2018 Royal Society of Chemistry
Fig. 5a–d
Fig. 5a–d
In situ synthesis of DNA nanostructure templated polymers. a Bottom-up fabrication of polymers on DNA origami template by in situ atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). Reproduced with permission from Ref. [50]. Copyright 2016 Wiley-VCH. b Polymeric shell on DNA origami template for enhancing the stability of DNA materials. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [51]. Copyright 2018 Royal Society of Chemistry. c Shape-controlled conductive polyaniline on DNA templates. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [53]. Copyright 2014 American Chemical Society. d Shape-controlled nanofabrication of polydopamine on DNA templates Reproduced with permission from Ref. [54, 55]. Copyright 2018 Wiley–VCH
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Morphology control of polymersomes on DNA nanostructures as scaffolds. a DNA origami mediated “frame guided assembly”. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [56, 57]. Copyright 2017 and 2016 Wiley-VCH. b Formation of hydrophobic polymer nanoparticle in DNA templates. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [58]. Copyright 2017 Nature Publishing Group
Fig. 7a–c
Fig. 7a–c
DNA-nanostructure-templated synthesis of single synthetic polymers. a Single polymer screening process based on DNA origami templates. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [59]. Copyright 2015 Nature Publishing Group. b Programmed switching of single polymer conformation on DNA origami template. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [60]. Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society. c Single polymer manipulation and energy transfer investigation of poly(F-DNA) conjugated polymer. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [62]. Copyright 2016 Wiley-VCH
Fig. 8a–c
Fig. 8a–c
DNA-strand-guided crystallization of inorganic nanoparticles. a, b The length of the DNA strand and the size of gold nanoparticles influence the crystal pattern. Reproduced with permission from Refs. [78] and [79]. Copyright 2008 Nature Publishing Group. c Various crystal lattice structures and their characterization based on DNA-guided assembly of gold nanoparticles. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [80] Copyright 2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science
Fig. 9a,b
Fig. 9a,b
DNA-nanostructure-templated casting growth of metal nanoparticles with controllable dimensionality. a Casting metal nanoparticles with predesigned 3D shapes based on DNA nanostructure templates. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [97]. Copyright 2014 American Association for the Advancement of Science. b Complex silica composite nanomaterials templated by DNA origami. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [100]. Copyright 2018 Nature Publishing Group
Fig. 10a–g
Fig. 10a–g
DNA-nanostructure-templated arrangement of nanoparticles with chiral plasmonic properties. a Left- and right-handed arrangement and circular dichroism (CD) spectra of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on rod-like DNA origami template. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [111]. Copyright 2012 Nature Publishing Group. b Anisotropic gold nanorod (AuNR) helical superstructures based on DNA origami sheets. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [112]. Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society. c Plasmonic toroidal metamolecules assembled by a DNA origami template. Reproduced with permission from Ref. [113]. Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society. d Light-responsive and e pH-responsive dynamic plasmonic switching between a relaxed state or left-/right- handed version based on two DNA origami bundles templates. Reproduced with permission from refs. [114] and [116]. Copyright 2016 American Chemical Society and 2015 Nature Publishing Group. f Two and g three AuNRs plasmonic walking on DNA origami template. Reproduced with permission from Refs. [117] and [118]. Copyright 2017 Wiley-VCH and 2018 American Chemical Society

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