The effect of fenugreek seed supplementation on serum irisin levels, blood pressure, and liver and kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A parallel randomized clinical trial

Complement Ther Med. 2020 Mar:49:102315. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2020.102315. Epub 2020 Feb 1.


Objectives: This study was designed to determine the effects of fenugreek seed (FS) on serum irisin levels, blood pressure, and liver and kidney function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: In an 8-week randomized controlled clinical trial, T2DM patients (n = 50) were assigned to the intervention (5 g FS powder, 3 times a day) or control group. Both groups received anti-diabetic drugs and nutritional consults. Serum samples were collected and blood pressure was measured at baseline and end of the trial. Data on dietary intake and physical activity was determined using the questionnaires.

Results: Compared to the control group, FS consumption resulted in a significant decrease in fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (p = 0.024), as well as a significant change in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p = 0.02) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (p = 0.001). Within-group analysis showed a significant decrease in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p = 0.014), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p = 0.001), and irisin (p = 0.001) in the FS group, and a significant increase in creatinine (Cr) (p = 0.001) and decrease in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (p = 0.001) in the control group. FS consumption did not have any significant effect on diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN).

Conclusion: FS intake has some beneficial effects on FPG, SBP, and some liver and kidney function tests in patients with T2DM. Further studies are required to investigate the effect of FS on irisin levels. Trial registration number, code: IRCT20190618043924N1.

Keywords: Diabetes; Hypertension; Intervention; Irisin; Kidney; Liver; Phytotherapy; Trigonella foenum-graecum.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Pressure*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Female
  • Fibronectins / blood*
  • Humans
  • Kidney / metabolism
  • Liver / metabolism
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Phytotherapy
  • Plant Extracts / administration & dosage*
  • Seeds
  • Trigonella


  • Biomarkers
  • Blood Glucose
  • FNDC5 protein, human
  • Fibronectins
  • Plant Extracts
  • fenugreek seed meal