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. 2020 Feb 12;5:100081.
doi: 10.1016/j.fochx.2020.100081. eCollection 2020 Mar 30.

Current Intakes of trans-palmitoleic ( trans-C16:1 n-7) and trans-vaccenic ( trans-C18:1 n-7) Acids in France Are Exclusively Ensured by Ruminant Milk and Ruminant Meat: A Market Basket Investigation

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Current Intakes of trans-palmitoleic ( trans-C16:1 n-7) and trans-vaccenic ( trans-C18:1 n-7) Acids in France Are Exclusively Ensured by Ruminant Milk and Ruminant Meat: A Market Basket Investigation

Etienne Guillocheau et al. Food Chem X. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

High circulating levels of trans-palmitoleic acid (TPA) are associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in humans. Thus, the origin of circulating TPA matters. Direct intakes of TPA are ensured by dairy products, and perhaps by partially hydrogenated oils (PHOs). Indirect intakes of TPA rely on dietary trans-vaccenic acid (TVA), which occurs in ruminant-derived foods and PHOs. As it is usually assumed that PHOs are not used any longer, we analyzed here a wide range of foods currently available at retail in France. We report that TPA and TVA (1) do occur in ruminant milk and meat, dairy products and in foreign PHOs, (2) do occur in dairy fat-containing foods and (3) do not occur in dairy fat-free foods. Together, our findings demonstrate that ruminant fats are the only contributors to circulating levels of TPA in humans.

Keywords: BMI, body mass index; CHS, cardiovascular health study; DMA, dimethylacetal; Dairy products; FAME, fatty acid methyl ester; GC-FID, gas chromatography-flame ionization detector; GC–MS, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; HFPS, health professionals follow-up study; MESA, multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis; NAFLD, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease; NHS, Nurses’ Health Sudy; PHFO, partially hydrogenated fish oil; PHO, partially hydrogenated oil (includes both PHFO and PHVO); PHVO, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil; Ruminant meat; Ruminant milk; TLC, thin-layer chromatography; TPA, trans-palmitoleic acid; TVA, trans-vaccenic acid; Trans-palmitoleic acid; Trans-vaccenic acid.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: EG acknowledges a CIFRE (Industrial Agreement of Training through Research) PhD fellowship from both the French Dairy Interbranch Organization (CNIEL) and the National Association for Research and Technology (ANRT) (CIFRE fellowship number 2015/1195). The present research was financially supported by the French Dairy Interbranch Organization (CNIEL) (PALMITO project) and the Lipids and Nutrition Group (GLN). EG is employed by the French Dairy Interbranch Organization (CNIEL).

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Analysis of trans-C16:1 and trans-C18:1 FAMEs from a cheese sample currently available at retail in France by GC–MS. (A) Total FAMEs chromatogram: focus on the C18 FAMEs zone. (B) Isomeric distribution of trans-C16:1 FAMEs after Ag+-TLC fractionation. (C) Isomeric distribution of trans-C18:1 FAMEs after Ag+-TLC fractionation.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Mean (±SEM, n = 21) distribution of (a) trans-C16:1 positional isomers and (b) trans-C18:1 positional isomers in ruminant milk and dairy products currently available at retail in France.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
Origin of circulating TPA in humans in the 1990s: contribution of ruminant fats and partially hydrogenated oils to intakes and circulating levels of TPA. Abbreviations. PHFO, partially hydrogenated fish oil; PHO, partially hydrogenated oil (includes PHFO and PHVO); PHVO, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil; TPA, trans-palmitoleic acid; TVA, trans-vaccenic acid.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Origin of circulating TPA at the present time and in the forthcoming period: exclusive contribution of ruminant fats to the intakes and circulating levels of TPA in countries where partially hydrogenated oils are not used anymore. Abbreviations. PHFO, partially hydrogenated fish oil; PHO, partially hydrogenated oil (includes PHFO and PHVO); PHVO, partially hydrogenated vegetable oil; TPA, trans-palmitoleic acid; TVA, trans-vaccenic acid.

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