Heart Transplantation From Brain Dead Donors: A Systematic Review of Animal Models

Transplantation. 2020 Nov;104(11):2272-2289. doi: 10.1097/TP.0000000000003217.


Despite advances in mechanical circulatory devices and pharmacologic therapies, heart transplantation (HTx) is the definitive and most effective therapy for an important proportion of qualifying patients with end-stage heart failure. However, the demand for donor hearts significantly outweighs the supply. Hearts are sourced from donors following brain death, which exposes donor hearts to substantial pathophysiological perturbations that can influence heart transplant success and recipient survival. Although significant advances in recipient selection, donor and HTx recipient management, immunosuppression, and pretransplant mechanical circulatory support have been achieved, primary graft dysfunction after cardiac transplantation continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Animal models, when appropriate, can guide/inform medical practice, and fill gaps in knowledge that are unattainable in clinical settings. Consequently, we performed a systematic review of existing animal models that incorporate donor brain death and subsequent HTx and assessed studies for scientific rigor and clinical relevance. Following literature screening via the U.S National Library of Medicine bibliographic database (MEDLINE) and Embase, 29 studies were assessed. Analysis of included studies identified marked heterogeneity in animal models of donor brain death coupled to HTx, with few research groups worldwide identified as utilizing these models. General reporting of important determinants of heart transplant success was mixed, and assessment of posttransplant cardiac function was limited to an invasive technique (pressure-volume analysis), which is limitedly applied in clinical settings. This review highlights translational challenges between available animal models and clinical heart transplant settings that are potentially hindering advancement of this field of investigation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain Death*
  • Heart Failure / physiopathology
  • Heart Failure / surgery*
  • Heart Transplantation / adverse effects*
  • Hemodynamics
  • Humans
  • Models, Animal
  • Primary Graft Dysfunction / etiology*
  • Primary Graft Dysfunction / physiopathology
  • Species Specificity
  • Tissue Donors*
  • Ventricular Function, Left
  • Ventricular Function, Right