Context: Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia type 1 (FHH1) is caused by loss-of-function mutations of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and is considered a benign condition associated with mild-to-moderate hypercalcemia. However, the children of parents with FHH1 can develop a variety of disorders of calcium homeostasis in infancy.
Objective: The objective of this work is to characterize the range of calcitropic phenotypes in the children of a mother with FHH1.
Methods: A 3-generation FHH kindred was assessed by clinical, biochemical, and mutational analysis following informed consent.
Results: The FHH kindred comprised a hypercalcemic man and his daughter who had hypercalcemia and hypocalciuria, and her 4 children, 2 of whom had asymptomatic hypercalcemia, 1 was normocalcemic, and 1 suffered from transient neonatal hypocalcemia and seizures. The hypocalcemic infant had a serum calcium of 1.57 mmol/L (6.28 mg/dL); normal, 2.0 to 2.8 mmol/L (8.0-11.2 mg/dL) and parathyroid hormone of 2.2 pmol/L; normal 1.0 to 9.3 pmol/L, and required treatment with intravenous calcium gluconate infusions. A novel heterozygous p.Ser448Pro CaSR variant was identified in the hypercalcemic individuals, but not the children with hypocalcemia or normocalcemia. Three-dimensional modeling predicted the p.Ser448Pro variant to disrupt a hydrogen bond interaction within the CaSR extracellular domain. The variant Pro448 CaSR, when expressed in HEK293 cells, significantly impaired CaSR-mediated intracellular calcium mobilization and mitogen-activated protein kinase responses following stimulation with extracellular calcium, thereby demonstrating it to represent a loss-of-function mutation.
Conclusions: Thus, children of a mother with FHH1 can develop hypercalcemia or transient neonatal hypocalcemia, depending on the underlying inherited CaSR mutation, and require investigations for serum calcium and CaSR mutations in early childhood.
Keywords: calcium-sensing receptor; hypercalcemia; hypocalcemia; hypoparathyroidism; loss-of-function; mutation.
© Endocrine Society 2020.