Neuroendocrine Tumors of the Appendix, Colon, and Rectum

Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2020 Apr;29(2):267-279. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2019.11.010.


Neuroendocrine neoplasms of the colon and rectum are rare, although surgeons are likely to encounter appendiceal neuroendocrine tumors while caring for patients with appendicitis. Surgery remains the primary treatment, provided disease is resectable, although for small rectal lesions endoscopic resection is often sufficient. Metastastic disease has a variety of treatment options. Poorly differentiated neuroendocrine carcinomas continue to have a poor prognosis.

Keywords: Appendiceal neuroendocrine neoplasm; Carcinoid; Colorectal neuroendocrine neoplasm; Hindgut neuroendocrine neoplasm; Neuroendocrine carcinoma; Neuroendocrine tumor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Appendiceal Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Colonic Neoplasms / pathology
  • Colonic Neoplasms / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / secondary
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery*
  • Rectal Neoplasms / pathology
  • Rectal Neoplasms / surgery*