Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease for which the pathophysiological mechanisms of motor neuron loss are not precisely clarified. Environmental and epigenetic mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs) could have a role in disease progression. We studied the expression pattern of miRNAs in ALS serum from 60 patients and 29 healthy controls. We also analyzed how deregulated miRNAs found in serum affected cellular pathways such as apoptosis, autophagy and mitochondrial physiology in SH-SY5Y cells. We found that miR-335-5p was downregulated in ALS serum. SH-SY5Y cells were transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-335-5p and showed abnormal mitochondrial morphology, with an increment of reactive species of oxygen and superoxide dismutase activity. Pro-apoptotic caspases-3 and 7 also showed an increased activity in transfected cells. The downregulation of miR-335-5p, which has an effect on mitophagy, autophagy and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells could have a role in the motor neuron loss observed in ALS.