National pattern of grain products consumption among Canadians in association with body weight status

BMC Nutr. 2017 Aug 25:3:59. doi: 10.1186/s40795-017-0183-x. eCollection 2017.


Background: Obesity in Canadian adults is showing upward trends. Consumption of whole-grains is one recommendation for the prevention of obesity. Despite the apparent nutritional and energy content differences between whole and refined grains, knowledge relating refined grains to weight gain in Canadian adults is scarce. The aim of this study was to assess the consumption of specific grain-based foods at the regional and national levels, and to evaluate the association between grain consumption with overweight or obesity in Canadian adults.

Methods: We used the 2004 Canadian Community Health Survey data. The association between type of grain product consumed and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adults aged ≥19y was evaluated by logistic regression.

Results: The mean daily intake of whole grains (86 ± 1.9 g/day) was significantly less than refined grains (276.6 ± 3.8 g/day), which was different across provinces. After adjustment for caloric needs, male consumers showed significantly lower intake of whole grains than females. Accordingly, the incidence of overweight or obesity was higher in males than in females. Also, in comparison to whole grains, the consumption of refined grains was associated with a higher risk of overweight or obesity among adults.

Conclusion: Canadians' preference was refined grain products consumption, based on 2004 Health Survey, which was significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Hence, consumption of whole grains should be more effectively promoted rather than refined grain products to prevent obesity and its complications such as cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes.

Keywords: Adult; Canadian community health survey 2004; National; Obesity; Refined-grain; Whole-grain.