A Generic Design of Driver Drowsiness and Stress Recognition Using MOGA Optimized Deep MKL-SVM

Sensors (Basel). 2020 Mar 7;20(5):1474. doi: 10.3390/s20051474.


Driver drowsiness and stress are major causes of traffic deaths and injuries, which ultimately wreak havoc on world economic loss. Researchers are in full swing to develop various algorithms for both drowsiness and stress recognition. In contrast to existing works, this paper proposes a generic model using multiple-objective genetic algorithm optimized deep multiple kernel learning support vector machine that is capable to recognize both driver drowsiness and stress. This algorithm simplifies the research formulations and model complexity that one model fits two applications. Results reveal that the proposed algorithm achieves an average sensitivity of 99%, specificity of 98.3% and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 97.1% for driver drowsiness recognition. For driver stress recognition, the best performance is yielded with average sensitivity of 98.7%, specificity of 98.4% and AUC of 96.9%. Analysis also indicates that the proposed algorithm using multiple-objective genetic algorithm has better performance compared to the grid search method. Multiple kernel learning enhances the performance significantly compared to single typical kernel. Compared with existing works, the proposed algorithm not only achieves higher accuracy but also addressing the typical issues of dataset in simulated environment, no cross-validation and unreliable measurement stability of input signals.

Keywords: at-risk driving; deep support vector machine; driver drowsiness; driver stress; multi-objective genetic algorithm; multiple kernel learning.