The gut microbiota is emerging as a prominent player in maintaining health through several metabolic and immune pathways. Dysregulation of gut microbiota composition, also known as dysbiosis, is involved in the clinical outcome of diabetes, inflammatory bowel diseases, cancer, aging and HIV infection. Gut dysbiosis and inflammation persist in people living with HIV (PLWH) despite receiving antiretroviral therapy, further contributing to non-AIDS comorbidities. Metformin, a widely used antidiabetic agent, has been found to benefit microbiota composition, promote gut barrier integrity and reduce inflammation in human and animal models of diabetes. Inspired by the effect of metformin on diabetes-related gut dysbiosis, we herein critically review the relevance of metformin to control inflammation in PLWH. Metformin may improve gut microbiota composition, in turn reducing inflammation and risk of non-AIDS comorbidities. This review will pave the way towards innovative strategies to counteract dysregulated microbiota and improve the lives of PLWH.
Keywords: Gut permeability; HIV; Inflammation; Metformin; Microbiota.