Idiopathic Normal Pressure Hydrocephalus (Hakim-Adams Syndrome): Clinical Symptoms, Diagnosis and Treatment

Psychiatr Danub. 2019 Dec;31(Suppl 5):737-744.


Idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus is a chronic steadily progressing disease. Nowadays a vital and acute socially significant problem still has not been solved. The etiology and pathogenesis of this disease remain so far poorly understood. Variable clinical manifestations, as well as difficulties in differential diagnosis with other neurodegenerative diseases - lead to underdiagnosing of the illness that causes a significant decrease in patient's quality of life and even results in disability. The number of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus has been steadily increasing. That is why, the coverage and a full study of this problem is of great interest for a broad circle of medical professionals.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Disabled Persons
  • Humans
  • Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure* / diagnosis
  • Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure* / physiopathology
  • Hydrocephalus, Normal Pressure* / therapy
  • Neurodegenerative Diseases / diagnosis
  • Quality of Life