Background: Hypertension is a major contributing factor to cardiovascular disease and is a leading cause of death in the world. The association between hepatic enzymes and hypertension has been reported in limited studies and the findings are inconsistent; data from Bangladeshi adults are not available yet. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of elevated liver enzymes and evaluate the association of elevated liver enzymes with hypertension in Bangladeshi adults.
Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 302 blood samples were collected from adult participants and analyzed the serum concentrations of alanine and aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and other markers related to hypertension. Hypertension was defined as resting SBP ≥ 140 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Associations between elevated liver enzymes and hypertension were evaluated by multinomial logistic regression.
Results: The mean concentrations of serum ALT, AST and GGT were significantly higher in the hypertensive group compared to the normotensive group (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). Overall, 49.2% of subjects in the hypertensive group and 38.1% of individuals in the normotensive group had at least one or more elevated liver enzymes. The prevalence of elevated ALT, AST, and GGT was significantly higher among participants in the hypertensive group compared to the normotensive group (p < 0.01, p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). An increasing trend for elevated liver enzymes was observed with increasing blood pressure. Serum ALT and GGT showed an independent relationship with hypertension.
Conclusions: The prevalence of elevated liver enzymes was higher in hypertensive individuals. Increased serum ALT and GGT activities were positively associated with hypertension in Bangladeshi adults.
Keywords: Bangladeshi adults; Blood pressure; Hypertension; Liver enzymes; Prevalence.