Multi-scale cellular engineering: From molecules to organ-on-a-chip

APL Bioeng. 2020 Mar 3;4(1):010906. doi: 10.1063/1.5129788. eCollection 2020 Mar.


Recent technological advances in cellular and molecular engineering have provided new insights into biology and enabled the design, manufacturing, and manipulation of complex living systems. Here, we summarize the state of advances at the molecular, cellular, and multi-cellular levels using experimental and computational tools. The areas of focus include intrinsically disordered proteins, synthetic proteins, spatiotemporally dynamic extracellular matrices, organ-on-a-chip approaches, and computational modeling, which all have tremendous potential for advancing fundamental and translational science. Perspectives on the current limitations and future directions are also described, with the goal of stimulating interest to overcome these hurdles using multi-disciplinary approaches.