It is well known from observational studies that sedentary lifestyle and reduced physical activity are common in dialysis and chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients and associate with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in this patient population. Epidemiological studies indicate that CKD patients undergo physical activity ~9 days/month and 43.9% of dialysis patients report not exercising at all. On the basis of awareness about the strong link between sedentary lifestyle and adverse clinical outcomes, the National Kidney Foundation and Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes have provided specific recommendations for physical activity in patients with kidney disease. Given the fact that CKD is a public health problem and it is still debated which type of exercise should be prescribed in these patients, this review focuses on the most robust evidence accumulated so far on the beneficial effect of various types of physical exercise on clinical outcomes in CKD and dialysis patients. This review does not treat this very important topic in another CKD category of patients, such as kidney-transplanted patients, for whom a special issue should be dedicated.
Keywords: chronic kidney disease; clinical trials; end-stage renal disease; physical exercise.
© The Author(s) 2020. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA.