Immune-Related Adverse Events in the Setting of PD-1/L1 Inhibitor Combination Therapy

Oncologist. 2020 Mar;25(3):e398-e404. doi: 10.1634/theoncologist.2018-0883. Epub 2019 Nov 21.


In 2018, a multi‐disciplinary workshop was held at the Massachusetts General Hospital to discuss challenges in defining, diagnosing, and treating immune‐related adverse events (irAE), including those that occur in patients administered PD‐1/L1 inhibitor combination therapy. In this commentary, the workshop participants present a clinical case that illustrates the complexity of irAE diagnosis and management in a patient receiving PD‐1/L1 combination therapy, summarize the current state of PD‐1/L1 combination therapy, and discuss challenges and opportunities for the evaluation of irAEs as these combinations become more widely used to treat patients with cancer.

Keywords: Immune checkpoint inhibitor; Immune-related adverse events; Immunotherapy; Immunotherapy toxicity; PD-1/L1 inhibitor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • B7-H1 Antigen
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Humans
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors*
  • Immunotherapy
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor*


  • B7-H1 Antigen
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
  • Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor